Characterization of Activated Carbon from Granulated Sugar

Muhammad Muhammad, Mulyawan Mulyawan, M R F Rahman, Suryati Suryati

Abstract


Activated carbon that potentially acts as an adsorbent was prepared from granulated sugar. The activated sugar was prepared through a dehydration process followed by a chemical activation process with a concentrated NaOH solution. To comprehend the properties of prepared ready carbon, characterization of the carbon was needed to be conducted. The conducted methods for prepared activated carbon were FTIR for detecting present functional groups attached to carbon, BET to identify the porous structure of synthesized carbon, SEM method as a morphological indicating method on synthesized carbon, and carbon thermal stability characteristic information from the TGA method. It was found that the prepared activated carbon contained various functional groups. The distinguished functional groups presented were carboxylic acid, free alcohol, NH2, and SO3. The readily activated carbon showed a rough surface to enhance the adsorption process on the synthesized carbon from the SEM characterization method. BET on the readily activated carbon revealed that the activated carbon exhibited type IV isotherm, consisting dominantly of mesopores and micropores as a minority. TGA characterization method showed that the thermal stability of carbon was significantly unstable in the range of 100℃ and around 200℃. It implies that the prepared activated carbon contained OH as one of its functional groups. With all the characterization methods conducted on the readily activated carbon from granulated sugar, it was found that the prepared carbon had the potential to be utilized as an adsorbent. Moreover, it is suggested that the granular sugar-based carbon should be investigated in the following future study in the wastewater treatment process.

Keywords


Activated Carbon, Granulated Sugar, Mesopores, Micropores.

Full Text:

PDF

References


“Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities,” 2019.

L. Opirina, A. Azwanda, and R. Febrianto, “Analysis of The Mechanical Properties of Concrete Based on Fly Ash and Palm Oil Clinkers,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Inf. Technol., vol. 1, no. 4, 2021, doi: 10.52088/ijesty.v1i4.148.

D. Abdullah, Tulus, S. Suwilo, S. Efendi, Hartono, and C. I. Erliana, “A Slack-Based Measures for Improving the Efficiency Performance of Departments in Universitas Malikussaleh,” Int. J. Eng. Technol., 2018, doi: 10.14419/ijet.v7i2.11253.

X. Xu, F. Liu, L. Jiang, J. Y. Zhu, D. Haagenson, and D. P. Wiesenborn, “Cellulose nanocrystals vs. cellulose nanofibrils: a comparative study on their microstructures and effects as polymer reinforcing agents,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2999–3009, 2013.

M. Mohanty, “New renewable energy sources, green energy development and climate change: Implications to Pacific Island countries,” Manag. Environ. Qual. An Int. J., 2012.

C. S. Silvia, M. Ikhsan, M. Safriani, and T. P. Gusmilia, “Efficiency Rainwater Harvesting at the Roof Campus Buildings,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Inf. Technol., vol. 1, no. 3, 2021, doi: 10.52088/ijesty.v1i3.80.

F. GÜZEL and İ. UZUN, “Determination of the micropore structures of activated carbons by adsorption of various dyestuffs from aqueous solution,” Turkish J. Chem., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 369–378, 2002.

A. SE, C. Gimba, A. Uzairu, and Y. Dallatu, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from palm kernel shell by chemical activation,” Res. J. Chem. Sci., vol. 2231, p. 606X, 2013.

J. Sahira, A. Mandira, P. B. Prasad, and P. R. Ram, “Effects of activating agents on the activated carbons prepared from lapsi seed stone,” Res. J. Chem. Sci. ___________________________________________________________ ISSN, vol. 2231, p. 606X, 2013.

O. Sirichote, W. Innajitara, L. Chuenchom, D. Chunchit, and K. Naweekan, “Adsorption of iron (III) ion on activated carbons obtained from bagasse, pericarp of rubber fruit and coconut shell,” Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 235–242, 2002.

W. Xiao et al., “Preparation and evaluation of an effective activated carbon from white sugar for the adsorption of rhodamine B dye,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 253, p. 119989, 2020.

Y. Yurike, Y. Yonariza, and R. Febriamansyah, “Patterns of Forest Encroachment Behavior Based on Characteristics of Immigrants and Local Communities,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Inf. Technol., vol. 1, no. 4, 2021, doi: 10.52088/ijesty.v1i4.170.

K. O. Oyedotun, F. Barzegar, A. Mirghni, A. A. Khaleed, T. M. Masikhwa, and N. Manyala, “Examination of High Porosity Activated Carbon Obtained from Dehydration of White Sugar (ASC) for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications,” in ECS Meeting Abstracts, 2019, no. 7, p. 614.

S. Biniak, M. Pakuła, G. S. Szymański, and A. Światkowski, “Effect of activated carbon surface oxygen-and/or nitrogen-containing groups on adsorption of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution,” Langmuir, vol. 15, no. 18, pp. 6117–6122, 1999.

P. S. Kumar, L. Korving, K. J. Keesman, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, and G.-J. Witkamp, “Effect of pore size distribution and particle size of porous metal oxides on phosphate adsorption capacity and kinetics,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 358, pp. 160–169, 2019.

V. Bernal, L. Giraldo, and J. C. Moreno-Piraján, “Physicochemical properties of activated carbon: their effect on the adsorption of pharmaceutical compounds and adsorbate–adsorbent interactions,” C, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 62, 2018.

E. R. Dyartanti and S. W. Bimo, “PENGERINGAN ETANOL DALAM KOLOM UNGGUN TETAP DENGAN ADSORBENT SILICA GEL,” EKUILIBRIUM, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 87–90.

J. P. Fraissard and C. W. Conner, Physical adsorption: experiment, theory, and applications, vol. 491. Springer Science & Business Media, 1997.

R. Natarajan et al., “Understanding the factors affecting adsorption of pharmaceuticals on different adsorbents–A critical literature update,” Chemosphere, vol. 287, p. 131958, 2022.

S. M. Lamine, C. Ridha, H.-M. Mahfoud, C. Mouad, B. Lotfi, and A. H. Al-Dujaili, “Chemical activation of an activated carbon prepared from coffee residue,” Energy Procedia, vol. 50, pp. 393–400, 2014.

S. Munirasu, J. Albuerne, A. Boschetti‐de‐Fierro, and V. Abetz, “Functionalization of carbon materials using the Diels‐Alder reaction,” Macromol. Rapid Commun., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 574–579, 2010.

M. Shaban, M. R. Abukhadra, A. A. P. Khan, and B. M. Jibali, “Removal of Congo red, methylene blue and Cr (VI) ions from water using natural serpentine,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 82, pp. 102–116, 2018.

R. Lafi, I. Montasser, and A. Hafiane, “Adsorption of congo red dye from aqueous solutions by prepared activated carbon with oxygen-containing functional groups and its regeneration,” Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1–2, pp. 160–181, 2019.

Muhammad, T. G. Chuah, Y. Robiah, A. R. Suraya, and T. S. Y. Choong, “Single and binary adsorptions isotherms of Cd (II) and Zn (II) on palm kernel shell based activated carbon,” Desalin. Water Treat., vol. 29, no. 1–3, pp. 140–148, 2011.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.52088/ijesty.v2i2.246

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Muhammad, Mulyawan Mulyawan, M R F Rahman, Suryati Suryati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Engineering, Science and Information Technology (IJESTY) eISSN 2775-2674