Nomophobia (No MObile PHone PhoBIA) Among Medical Students: A Literature Review

Sri Wahyuni


Smartphones have become more popular due to advances in high-speed Internet connectivity. Smartphones are popular among young people, including medical students, as virtual devices. As a result, excessive use of smartphones has expressed concerns about its addictive potential, a condition known as nomophobia. Nomophobia (No MObile PHone PhoBIA) is the worry or fear people feel when they do not have their mobile phone or are unable to use it. The term was introduced in 2008 and is considered a modern phobia. Nomophobia is also a general pathology among students, particularly those in medicine. This literature review examines the prevalence of nomophobia, symptoms, causes of nomophobia among medical students, and the impact of nomophobia on student achievement. Existing literature on nomophobia in the PUBMED and Google Scholar databases was examined using the search terms ‘nomophobia’ OR ‘mobile phone use’ OR ‘mobile phone addiction’ AND 'medical students.' Several studies have found that medical students have nomophobia. More than 50% of medical students in this review have moderate nomophobia, while 5-20% have severe nomophobia. The most common symptoms of nomophobia were anxiety, agitation, tachycardia, inability to turn off the mobile phone, constantly checking the phone, charging the battery even when the phone is nearly fully charged, fear of not being able to connect to a data network, concerns about being removed from online status or identity, and avoid activities to spend time on a mobile device. Students with severe nomophobia reported poor academic performance; students with a higher level of nomophobia performed poorly academically and vice versa. Medical students had a greater incidence of addiction to mobile phones, which affected their health and academic achievement. More emphasis should be placed on early detection and intervention to overcome nomophobia.


Nomophobia, Prevalence, Symptoms, Medical Students, Academic Performance

Full Text:



“How many people have smartphones,†2022. (accessed Aug. 17, 2022).

“Number of smartphone subscriptions worldwide from 2016 to 2027,†Feb. 2022. (accessed Aug. 19, 2022).

C. H. Ting and Y. Y. Chen, “Smartphone addiction,†in Adolescent Addiction, Elsevier, 2020, pp. 215–240. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-818626-8.00008-6.

Ö. Enez, The phobia of the modern world: nomophobia conceptualization of nomophobia and investigation of associated psychological constructs. Istambul: E-KİTAP PROJESİ, 2021.

Fathimath Suhara KT, Maneesha.K.P, and Sannet Thomas, “Nomophobia: A meta-analytic review,†EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR), vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 469–477, May 2021, doi: 10.36713/epra7145.

B. Kneidinger-Müller, “When the smartphone goes offline: A factorial survey of smartphone users’ experiences of mobile unavailability,†Comput Human Behav, vol. 98, pp. 1–10, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.037.

U. Devi and R. Dutta, “A review paper on prevalence of nomophobia among students and its impact on their academic achievement,†Journal of Positive School Psychology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 5397–5405, 2022.

J. Nie, P. Wang, and L. Lei, “Why can’t we be separated from our smartphones? The vital roles of smartphone activity in smartphone separation anxiety,†Comput Human Behav, vol. 109, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106351.

SecurEnvoy, “66% population suffer nomophobia fear being without their phone,†2012. (accessed Aug. 17, 2022).

S. Bhattacharya, M. Bashar, A. Srivastava, and A. Singh, “NOMOPHOBIA: NO MObile PHone PhoBIA,†J Family Med Prim Care, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 1297, 2019, doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_71_19.

A. L. Spear King, E. Guedes, J. P. Neto, F. Guimaraes, and A. E. Nardi, “Nomophobia: clinical and demographic profile of social network excessive users,†J Addict Res Ther, vol. 08, no. 04, 2017, doi: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000339.

R. Kumar, S. Kumari, P. Bharti, and D. Sharma, “Nomophobia: A rising concern among Indian students,†Ind Psychiatry J, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 230, 2021, doi: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_134_21.

A. Sunthlia, S. Ahmad, and S. Singh, “Menace of mobile phone overuse: an emerging public health concern,†Int J Community Med Public Health, pp. 153–156, 2016, doi: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20151552.

B. Ozdemir, O. Cakir, and I. Hussain, “Prevalence of Nomophobia among university students: A comparative study of Pakistani and Turkish undergraduate students,†Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1519–1532, 2018, doi: 10.29333/ejmste/84839.

K. Tanoto, E. Suryani, and S. Joewana, “Relationship between Nomophobia and Attention among Medical Students in Jakarta,†Althea Medical Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.15850/amj.v7n4.2033.

Stewart Fox-Mills, “Nomophobia is the fear of being out of mobile phone contact - and it’s the plague of our 24/7 age,†Daily Mail UK, 2008. Accessed: Aug. 18, 2022. [Online]. Available:

V. Kung, “Rise of ‘nomophobia’: More people fear loss of mobile contact,†CNN, Mar. 07, 2012. Accessed: Aug. 18, 2022. [Online]. Available:

I. A. Farooqui, P. Pore, and J. Gothankar, “Nomophobia: an emerging issue in medical institutions?,†Journal of Mental Health, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 438–441, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1080/09638237.2017.1417564.

C. Yildirim and A. Uk, “Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Developing and validating a questionnaire using mixed methods research,†Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 2014. [Online]. Available:

N. L. Bragazzi and G. del Puente, “A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V,†Psychol Res Behav Manag, vol. 7, pp. 155–160, May 2014, doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S41386.

C. Yildirim and A. P. Correia, “Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire,†Comput Human Behav, vol. 49, pp. 130–137, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.059.

A. M. Rodríguez-García, J. L. Belmonte, and A. J. Moreno-Guerrero, “Nomophobia: An individual’s growing fear of being without a smartphone—a systematic literature review,†Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 17, no. 2, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17020580.

E. M. Al-Balhan, H. Khabbache, A. Watfa, T. S. Re, R. Zerbetto, and N. L. Bragazzi, “Psychometric evaluation of the arabic version of the nomophobia questionnaire: Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis – Implications from a pilot study in Kuwait among university students,†Psychol Res Behav Manag, vol. 11, pp. 471–482, 2018, doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S169918.

S. Kar, N. Nath Sarma, C. Mistry, and R. Pal, “Prevalence of nomophobia among medical students in a private college of Bhubaneswar, Odisha,†J.Bio, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2277–8330, 2017.

N. v Mallya, S. Kumar, and S. Mashal, “A study to evaluate the behavioral dimensions of “Nomophobia†and attitude toward smartphone usage among medical students in Bengaluru,†Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, vol. 8, no. 9, p. 1553, 2018, doi: 10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0827603092018.

A. Mengi, A. Singh, and V. Gupta, “An institution-based study to assess the prevalence of Nomophobia and its related impact among medical students in Southern Haryana, India,†J Family Med Prim Care, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 2303, 2020, doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_58_20.

M. Qutishat, E. Rathinasamy Lazarus, A. M. Razmy, and S. Packianathan, “University students’ nomophobia prevalence, sociodemographic factors and relationship with academic performance at a University in Oman,†Int J Afr Nurs Sci, vol. 13, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ijans.2020.100206.

J. Bartwal and B. Nath, “Evaluation of nomophobia among medical students using smartphone in north India,†Med J Armed Forces India, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 451–455, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.mjafi.2019.03.001.

C. K, M. Nelliyanil, and M. Anil, “Prevalence of nomophobia and its association with loneliness, self happiness and self esteem among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Coastal Karnataka,†Indian J Public Health Res Dev, vol. 11, no. 03, p. 523, 2020.

N. Bano, M. A. Khan, U. Asif, J. de Beer, and H. Rawass, “Effects of nomophobia on anxiety, stress and depression among Saudi medical students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia,†J Pak Med Assoc, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 854–858, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.47391/JPMA.983.

M. Kubrusly, P. G. de B. Silva, G. V. de Vasconcelos, E. D. L. G. Leite, P. de A. Santos, and H. A. L. Rocha, “Nomophobia among medical students and its association with depression, anxiety, stress and academic performance,†Rev Bras Educ Med, vol. 45, no. 3, 2021, doi: 10.1590/

M. Aktaş Terzioğlu and T. Toker Uğurlu, “Perceived stress and nomophobia in medical faculty students during COVID-19 pandemic,†Bağımlılık Dergisi, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 474–482, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.51982/bagimli.953053.

C. Copaja-Corzo, C. J. Aragón-Ayala, and A. Taype-Rondan, “Nomophobia and Its Associated Factors in Peruvian Medical Students,†Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 19, no. 9, May 2022, doi: 10.3390/ijerph19095006.

V. Notara, E. Vagka, C. Gnardellis, and A. Lagiou, “The Emerging Phenomenon of Nomophobia in Young Adults: A Systematic Review Study.,†Addiction & health, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 120–136, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.22122/ahj.v13i2.309.

S. Ahmed, N. Pokhrel, S. Roy, and A. J. Samuel, “Impact of nomophobia: A nondrug addiction among students of physiotherapy course using an online cross-sectional survey,†Indian J Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 77–80, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_361_18.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 302 times
PDF - 131 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Sri Wahyuni

International Journal of Engineering, Science and Information Technology (IJESTY) eISSN 2775-2674